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Axis & Allies: Europe

Updates (11/17/05)

Did any rules change from the first to second editions of the rule book?

Only two.

  1. A destroyer taking part in an amphibious assault scores a hit on a roll of 2 or less, not three or less. This change applies only to amphibious assaults. Destroyers still score hits on rolls of 3 when attacking or defending in Naval Combat.
  2. Under the Soviet Patriotic War rule, the Soviet player can change Allied units into their Soviet counterparts only if the Allied unit is in a territory that also contains a Soviet industrial complex. This means that Allied units can be exchanged only in Leningrad, Stalingrad, Archangel, and Moscow.


The enemy has subs and ships in a sea zone. I attack with ships and planes. Subs can't hurt planes, so how are the defender's hits apportioned on the attacking ships and planes?
You must keep track separately of how many hits the subs scored. All of those hits must be taken by attacking ships. Hits caused by the defender's ships can be placed on attacking ships or planes, but all the hits caused by defending subs must be placed on ships. A sub can never damage a plane, under any circumstance.

How does the submerge rule work?
Immediately before you roll dice for submarine attacks, you decide which subs (if any) wish to fight, and which will submerge. Some can submerge while others stay and fight. For example, if some of your defending subs were hit by attacking units, it doesn't make sense for them to submerge; they might as well take their final shot before sinking. Undamaged subs can submerge while damaged ones remain and shoot back. It doesn't matter whether your subs are attacking or defending, they always have the option to submerge provided they haven't yet rolled an attack in this combat round. They can even submerge before the first attack; that is, you can move subs into an enemy-occupied area and immediately submerge, preventing any combat from occurring (sometimes called sub-stalling). Once submerged, they are out of the battle for good.

When attacked, can submarines submerge immediately or do they have to survive one round of fire from attackers?
They have to withstand at least one round of fire. Otherwise they would be practically indestructable.

Can a defending sub submerge to escape battle with an attacking sub?
Subs can submerge even when fighting other subs. In the case of a defending sub, it would still need to survive the attacking sub's sneak attack before it could submerge.

Can you move a sub into an enemy occupied sea zone, then submerge immediately without attacking or sustaining defensive rolls at all?
Yes, you can move a sub into an enemy-held sea zone (during combat movement only) and submerge immediately, even if the enemy has destroyers in the zone. One of the best reasons to do this is to prevent transports from loading troops in that zone during the Combat Movement portion of the enemy's next turn. Note, however, that this tactic delays an invasion for only one turn; a transport in a sea zone with enemy subs can't load troops during Combat Movement, but it will be able to load troops during Non-combat movement, either because the enemy subs are submerged (submerged subs don't prevent loading or unloading) or because it survived combat (a transport that survives combat can either load or unload during Non-combat Movement).

At the beginning of my turn, there is an enemy sub in the same sea zone as some of my naval units. Can my ships move out of the space without attacking, or must they stay there and fight the sub?
If naval units of any type begin the turn in a sea zone with enemy naval units of any type (subs or surface ships), they must either move out during Combat Movement (even if you aren't attacking anything) or stay and attack the enemy vessels. Of course, if your ships are subs, they can stay and submerge instead of attacking.

If subs keep constantly submerging, how do you destroy them?
Defending subs can't submerge until immediately before rolling their own attacks. That means an attacker gets at least one round of shots at them before they can submerge.

Can attacking submarines retreat with the rest of an attacking fleet, or is their only escape to submerge in the sea zone where the battle is taking place? If they can retreat, are they required to retreat with the rest of the fleet, or are they free to pick their own sea zone?
Subs can retreat like any other naval units. That means the whole fleet, including subs, must go together and must go to the same sea zone.

A German sub moves into a convoy. Enemy ships are present, so the German sub immediately submerges. On the Allies' turn, the Allied ships move out, leaving the German sub alone. Is the convoy now in German hands?

When German subs are attacked in a zone that contains Allied naval units of more than one nationality, Allied losses can be taken from any of those Allied vessels. If the defending German subs score more hits than the attacking player has ships, must the excess hits be taken from the Allied ships that are standing by? For example, a sea zone is occupied by three German subs and two British transports. The US player brings in two destroyers and attacks the subs. The German player rolls his defensive dice and scores three hits! Must the Allies lose three ships, even though the Americans attacked with only two?
A guiding principle throughout the rules is that if there is a way to apportion hits so they result in losses, the losses must be taken. In this case, the Allies must lose three ships; whether those are two destroyers and a transport or two transports and a destroyer is up to the Allied players.

In the previous example, what if the British transports had been subs instead? Could they submerge to avoid becoming casualties?
The only time subs can submerge is immediately before rolling dice, whether attacking or defending. In this example, the British subs can't submerge because they don't get to roll dice (they're not defenders -- Germany is defending, the US is attacking, and the British are just innocent bystanders caught in the crossfire).

A fleet consisting of a battleship, a transport, and two subs is attacked by three bombers. All three bombers score hits. Can the defender choose to lose his submarines even though the attacker has no destroyer in the battle?
Without a destroyer to spot them, the subs play no part in this battle. They cannot take hits to save the surface ships. If there was an attacking destroyer, the subs could take hits. If there was an attacking sub or battleship and one of the hits came from it, that hit could be placed on a defending sub, but not hits from the bombers.

Consider the previous example again. This time, assume that the defenders are German and the attackers are US. In addition, there is a British destroyer in the same sea zone. Can that British destroyer guide the bombers to the subs, even though it is taking no active part in the combat? Does its presence there allow the German to take losses from his subs even if the US doesn't want him to?
Yes and yes. The British destroyer makes the subs vulnerable to air attack by its mere presence, whether or not the US player likes it. In this case, the British destroyer cannot attack or defend, but it does reveal the subs and it is subject to taking German hits.

How often do subs get their first strike attack?
Every round, as long as the subs are the attackers and no enemy destroyer is present.

The rules state that a ship hit by a sub's sneak attack doesn't get to return fire. Does this apply to battleships that survive the first hit? Do they get to fire after taking one hit from a sub, or are they in effect paralyzed by the hit?
A battleship does get to return fire as long as it's afloat. If it takes a second hit from a sneak attack, then it sinks immediately and gets no shot.

Can the US build naval units in the US Eastern Coast sea zone if it is occupied by a German sub?
The presence of enemy ships has no effect on naval construction. If the Bismarck and the entire Kriegsmarine were in the US Eastern Coast sea zone, the US could still build a fleet there.

Amphibious Assault, Transport, Naval Movement, Naval Combat

Must Germany capture Gibralter in order to move its naval units from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic, or vice versa?
While strategically helpful, it's not required by the rules that a player own either Gibraltar or Spanish Morocco in order for his ships to pass between the Mediterranean and the Atlantic.

At the beginning of the game, Axis subs can move into or through convoy zones to take money from the Allies. The rules, however, aren't clear about when the money is extracted from the Allies' accounts.
Controlling/Interdicting convoys does not take money from the Allies' pockets the way Strategic Bombing does. Instead, losing a convoy route lowers that country's income. If Germany takes a five point British convoy zone, move the UK's income down 5 IPCs on the chart. Do not remove 5 IPCs from Great Britain's bank balance or move Germany's income up by 5. If the UK does not free up the convoy by the end of her turn, she'll be stuck collecting the reduced number of IPCs shown on the National Production chart.

Is it possible for any of my surface ships (i.e., non-submarines) to end the turn in the same sea zone as an enemy surface ship? Is there any way for that to happen legally?
As a result of movement and combat, no. You can, however, build ships in a sea zone that contains enemy ships, which would result in that sea zone containing friendly and enemy ships at the end of your turn.

Is there any way for battleships or destroyers to bombard an island or coastal area without there being an amphibious invasion?
No. You must commit at least one infantry, armor, or artillery unit to an amphibious landing in order for your ships to bombard.

Can I load an infantry unit and an artillery unit on the same transport?

If enemy naval units were driven out of a sea zone by a naval battle this turn, can my naval units that didn't move during Combat Movement move into or through that zone during Non-combat Movement?
Yes. Any unit can move through a sea zone or land territory that was just cleared of enemy units. Fighters and bombers looking for a place to land are the only units prohibited from ending the turn in just-captured territory.

Can two units in a single transport unload in two different territories during Non-combat Movement if both are adjacent to the same sea zone?
No. A transport can unload into only one territory.

Can a transport carrying two units unload one for an amphibious attack and unload the other during Non-combat Movement?
Yes, but both units must unload into the same territory. There aren't too many reasons for doing this, but one would be to move an AA gun into a territory that was just captured in an amphibious attack.

Can transports be removed as casualties during the land battle if they brought troops into an amphibious assault?

My opponent launched an amphibious assault from Egypt against Libya so that he could use his destroyer to get a support shot. One infantry loaded onto the transport and made the amphibious assault while, at the same time, an armor unit drove across the border in a standard attack. Is that legal?
Not only is it legal, it's smart, especially if it puts a destroyer to work that otherwise would spend the turn just sitting in port. The risk is that if the combat turns against the attacker, none of his units can retreat, including the tank that wasn't transported.

What can retreat from an amphibious assault, and how?
Attacking land forces fight on to the bitter end. Only fighters and bombers can retreat from an amphibious assault. For ground units, it's win or die.

Can armor blitz off of a transport if the first territory is unoccupied or friendly? Can it move two spaces after unloading in the Non-combat Movement step?
No. A unit cannot move before loading into a transport or after unloading from a transport.

Strategic Bombing

As a defender against a strategic bombing run, can you move planes in from surrounding spaces to defend, or is it only planes already in the space with the industrial complex that can be used for defense?
Just the ones already there.

When performing a Strategic Bombing Raid, does every area the bombers fly over get to shoot at them with AA?
Yes. The same applies to fighters escorting the bombers.

A bomber and a fighter take off from the same territory on a Strategic Bombing Raid. The bomber is shot down by AA along the way. Can the fighter turn back, or must it "complete the mission," even though bombing is no longer possible.
According to the Strategic Bombing sequence, the attacker doesn't announce that he's making an SBR until the bombers reach their target area. Until that time, the planes could be flying anywhere, to make a normal attack or an SBR. If the bomber is shot down, the fighter is free to head for any target the owning player desires, as long as it's a combat move. The fighter can't turn around and immediately go back to its base, but it can redirect to any combat. Pre-designating targets is not a normal part of A&A play.

When air units set out on a Strategic Bombing Raid, must the path they take to the target be clear of enemy units? Can a bomber and/or its escorts fly over enemy land units, fighters, or carriers to reach the target?
The path does not need to be clear of enemy units. Only AA guns can attack bombers or fighters during Combat Movement. In fact, the same thing is true of all air movement; there is no rule stating that air units must stop moving when they enter a space containing enemy units of any sort. They are subject to attack by AA units in every territory they cross, but not to interception by enemy air units.

When the defending player gets a hit with his AA gun against a Strategic Bombing Raid, are the lost units removed immediately or do they have a chance to return fire at defending fighters?
As the rule is written, if the hit is placed on an escorting fighter, the fighter gets to shoot at defending fighters before it's removed. If the hit is placed on a bomber, the bomber is shot down before it gets to drop its bombs.
HOWEVER, this is an error in the sequence of play which contradicts the rules on anti-aircraft guns. The correct sequence was published in Axis & Allies: Pacific and it should be used in both games. In other words, any attacking planes that are shot down by AA get no opportunity to attack, regardless of whether they were lost during an SBR or a regular combat.

Other Air Unit Questions

Can infantry attack aircraft?

How much do bombers cost? The (first edition) book says 25 IPCs on pg. 23, but the board and cards indicate 15 IPCs.
Bombers cost 15 IPCs; the 25 is a typo.

How do bombers fight a land battle? Do they get one strike and then return to base, or do they keep rolling until one side is defeated? Are enemy fighters in the air at the time, and therefore safe from bombing?
In land or sea battles, bombers fight like normal units. They attack each round until all the defenders are killed or until all the attackers are killed or withdrawn. Bombers can kill defending fighters like anything else, although the fighters will defend themselves. Remember that a battle in A&A:E doesn't represent a single bombing raid, it represents a commitment of resources to months of combat. A fighter "shot down" by a bomber represents planes destroyed on the runway, shot down by tail gunners, or shot down by the minimal fighter escort that you can assume is included with every bomber unit. It could even represent planes that crashed because of mechanical failures and damage to aircraft factories or maintenance facilities. At the mega-strategic level of A&A:E, it's important to look at the big picture when analyzing what's going on.

Three fighters fly out to attack an enemy fleet. They are too far out to sea to make it back to land after the combat. The player has only one carrier to move into the sea zone. Is this allowed as a “risky” attack, or prohibited as a "suicide" attack?
This is a suicide situation. Risky means that you need a carrier in order to land, but enough carrier space is available. If there are more planes involved than can land on the available carriers, then it's an illegal, suicide attack. You cannot assume that there will be losses, no matter how strong the enemy is.

Industry, IPCs, Convoys, and Production

Can a country receive more than 50 IPCs per turn? Is there any maximum number of IPCs that a country can receive?
There is no limit to how many IPCs a player may collect on one turn. If your income exceeds 50, then place one control marker on 50 and another at whatever amount you need to make up the rest. In other words, add the two marked numbers together to get your IPC total.

If Germany captures a Middle-Eastern territory (Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Syria, Trans-Jordan), the Allies must pay the territories' IPC value directly to the German player. Where does that money go when the territories are in Allied hands? Do the Allies get an additional 8 IPCs as a reward for holding them? Or is this just a penalty?
The Allies get nothing for holding the Middle-Eastern territories. But also note that losing the territories doesn't reduce the Allies' IPC income, it just forces them to turn some of that income over to Germany. The bank is not involved in this transaction at all.

Is it correct to assume that the loss of Archangel means that the Russian economy drops by the value of both the territory (1) and the Soviet convoy (4)? Does this income return if Archangel is recaptured by the Soviets?
That's correct. And yes, if the Soviets liberate Archangel, they recover the convoy income as well. It's important to note, however, that the capture of Archangel alone does not allow the German player to place a control marker on the convoy route. Likewise, the liberation of Archangel does not remove German control of the convoy route, if the Germans control the box at sea. It is possible for the Soviets to control the convoy route but still lose the convoy income if they don't control Archangel. They need both in order to collect the four IPCs for the convoy.

If Germany captures convoy routes, does it collect the IPCs?
No, the convoy IPCs are considered sunk and gone; no one collects them (until the Allies reopen the route).

If I purchase a carrier and two fighters at the beginning of my turn, can I place the fighters on the carrier at a friendly port at the same time? That would allow the fighters to defend the carrier immediately.
Yes it would, but it's not allowed. Newly built fighters can only be placed on a land territory.

Combat and Non-Combat Movement

Does Combat Movement necessarily entail combat? In other words, can you move into enemy controlled territory and choose not to fight?
Combat Movement always triggers combat -- with two exceptions. One, fighters and bombers can fly over enemy-occupied territories in order to reach another combat on the other side. Two, naval units can leave a sea zone with enemy subs in order to avoid combat with them.

Blitzing aside, can an armor unit move through an enemy-occupied space to get to a different combat, or to a friendly territory?
Absolutely not.

If you capture an enemy territory during combat, can other units move into that territory during Non-combat Movement?
Yes, as long as they're land units. Ships and subs can also use Non-combat Movement to enter sea zones that were cleared of enemy vessels during combat. Only air units are prohibited from landing in newly conquered territories.

During Non-combat Movement, can tanks pass through a newly captured territory to a friendly territory on the other side?

If a tank uses only one of its moves to reach a combat, can it use its remaining move to withdraw, the way planes do?
Withdrawing from combat doesn't work this way. It doesn’t matter whether a tank moved one or two spaces to get into combat, it always has the option of withdrawing (unless it's an amphibious assault). The same is true of infantry and artillery as well as fighters and bombers. The tank's ability to move two spaces has nothing to do with retreating. The movement that air units make during Non-combat Movement is completely different, too. They are returning to airbases; tanks don't need to return to a base.

Map Questions

Canada seems to be divided into three territories: the mainland, St. John's Island in the Davis Strait, and Halifax. Are these actually separate territories or are they part of the Canadian mainland?
It's all Canada. Every land territory and sea zone on the map has a name. If a space has a name, treat it as a separate space (like the small islands in the Mediterranean). If it doesn't have a name, then it's part of a nearby, named space.

The Mediterranean islands and Iceland have no IPC value and seem to be uncontrolled by anyone at the start of the game. Does this mean they belong to the first country to move troops into them?
The islands have no IPC value and no troops set up on them, but that doesn't mean no one controls them. Each island is color coded to indicate which player controls it. No islands are uncontrolled. They will belong to whoever puts troops on them, but in some cases that will be a Combat Move and in others a Non-combat Move.

Does the US border the Davis Strait?
No, the US is adjacent only to the US Eastern Coast sea zone. The map is not distinct in this regard.

Victory Conditions

I'm confused; just how many capitals must Germany capture in order to win?
The Germans need to capture only one capital to win, but they must also control their own capital (Germany) at the same time. You need to control both of those capitals, simultaneously, for one complete round (the end of your turn until the end of your next turn).

I don't see how the exception to "Liberating a Former Allied Territory" on page 12 is possible. If Germany controls your ally's capital, wouldn't the game end before you could use the Industrial Complex?
The exception applies only to the rare case in which Germany captures a capital, you liberate one of that ally's Industrial Centers, and someone (you or an ally) captures Germany before the action gets back around to Germany's next turn. Admittedly, this combination of events doesn't come up very often.

Miscellaneous Questions

I recently bought Axis & Allies: Europe and I seem to be missing some of the German and U.S. infantry pieces. What can I do to correct this?
Due to a manufacturing error, certain versions of Axis & Allies: Europe are missing 13 German Infantry and 13 U.S. Infantry playing pieces. Affected Axis & Allies: Europe units can be identified by the SKU number on the side of the box. If your copy of Axis & Allies: Europe has SKU number that ends with an "A" (see reference picture) then you should contact Wizards of the Coast Customer Service immediately.

The diagram on page 18 of the rulebook shows the Baltic States with a British control marker. Can the other Allies take these territories for themselves?
No. The British symbol is there in that diagram to identify the fighter as British, not the territory.

The Soviet Patriotic War rule can be invoked on US and British units only if they are in a territory with a Soviet Industrial Center, correct?
Correct. The errata in the second edition rules specifies that the Soviet player can seize control of Allied units only if they are in Leningrad, Archangel, Stalingrad, or Moscow. Note that this does not mention any sea zones; Allied ships and subs are not subject to this rule and cannot be taken by the Soviet player.

Download the rules to Axis & Allies: Europe.

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